But once the worker revolt was put down, they began to assert their claims in court. Conséquences Les révolutions Situation en France et en Europe Le peuple qui subit cette crise économique est de plus en plus mécontent de ces injustices et de l' ascension de la grande bourgeoisie. As of June 1848, over 7,000 shopkeepers and merchants in Paris had not paid their rent since February. The 1848 Revolution in France, sometimes known as the February Revolution (révolution de Février), was one of a wave of revolutions in 1848 in Europe. Additionally, there was a major split between the citizens of Paris and those citizens of the more rural areas of France. On 23 June 1848, the people of Paris rose in insurrection, which became known as June Days uprising – a bloody but unsuccessful rebellion by the Paris workers against a conservative turn in the Republic's course.  Louis Philippe turned a deaf ear to the Reform Movement, and discontent among wide sections of the French people continued to grow. Politics in France continued to tilt to the right, as the era of revolution in France came to an end. Lacking the property qualifications to vote, the lower classes were about to erupt in revolt.. The Revolution of 1848 in the German Lands and central Europe "Germany" (prior to 1848 having been a confederation of thirty-nine individually sovereign Empires, Kingdoms, Electorates, Grand Duchies, Duchies, Principalities and Free Cities), had a movement for a single parliament in 1848 and many central European would-be "nations" attempted to promote a distinct existence for their "nationality". These revolutions planted the seed for national movements in many parts of Europe. The year 1848 was initially envisaged because of its importance as the year of revolutions that helped to create the political landscape of modern Europe: the rising political and economic power of the middle classes. ", Loubère, Leo. Sous l'impulsion des libéraux et des républicains, une partie du peuple de Paris se soulève à nouveau et parvient à prendre le contrôle de la capitale. Following the repression of the June Days, the French Revolution of 1848 was basically over. Le gouvernement dirigé par Metternich prend la fuite. The conservative elements of French society were wasting no time in organizing against the provisional government. In February 1848, the workers and petite bourgeoisie had fought together, but now, in June 1848, the lines were drawn differently.  This first draft still contained the phrase "Right to Work" and contained several provisions dealing with the demands of the working classes. They directed their anger against the Citizen King Louis Philippe and his chief minister for foreign and domestic policy, François Pierre Guillaume Guizot. Décrit la révolution de 1848 en Europe. Huge collection, amazing choice, 100+ million high quality, affordable RF and RM images. Histoire. La « vieille Europe », celle des princes, des principautés et des empires est largement remplacée par la « jeune Europe », celle des libéraux, des démocrates et des patriotes. The conservative classes of society were becoming increasingly fearful of the power of the working classes in Paris. François-Vincent Raspail was the candidate of the revolutionary working classes. Indeed, they exchanged letters which were published in socialist newspapers such as La Voix du Peuple.  The leaders of this revolt—Louis Auguste Blanqui, Armand Barbès, François Vincent Raspail and others—were arrested. The radicals began to protest against the National Constituent Assembly government.  Many radicals felt the elections were a sign of the slowing down of the revolutionary movement. Writers such as Louis Blanc ("The right to work") and Pierre-Joseph Proudhon ("Property is theft!")  On 31 May, 15,000 jobless French rioted as rising xenophobia persecuted Belgian workers in the north. This campaign of banquets (Campagne des banquets), was intended to circumvent the governmental restriction on political meetings and provide a legal outlet for popular criticism of the regime. ), Revolution and reaction: 1848 and the Second French republic (London and New York, 1975); S. Aprile et al., La révolution de 1848 en France et en Europe (Paris, 1998); M. Agulhon, 1848 ou L’apprentissage de la 32 A. Gomez Mendoza, ‘Los ferrocarriles en la economia Española, 1855–1913’, in La nueva historia economica, ed. These taxes alienated the "landed classes"—especially the small farmers and the peasantry of the rural areas of France—from the provisional government. End of the reign of King Louis Philippe and start of the Second Republic, Rise of conservatism within the Second Republic, G.C. (CDRom) Anthony Poncier Édition électronique URL : http://journals.openedition.org/rh19/233 ISSN : 1777-5329 Éditeur La Société de 1848 Édition imprimée Date de publication : 1 juin 2000 ISSN : 1265-1354 Référence électronique Supported by the ultra-royalists, Charles X was an extremely unpopular reactionary monarch whose aspirations were far more grand than those of his deceased brother. Such governmental policies and obliviousness to the real reasons of economic troubles were, according to Bastiat, the main causes of the French Revolution of the 1848 and the rise of socialists and anarchists in the years preceding the revolution itself. In preparation for these elections, two major goals of the provisional government were universal suffrage and unemployment relief. Between February and April 1848, the conservative order which had dominated Europe since the fall of Napoleon in 1815 was felled by the hammer-blows of revolution across the continent. The petit bourgeoisie worked the hardest to suppress the revolt.  Charles was forced to abdicate the throne and to flee Paris for the United Kingdom. These tensions between liberal Orléanist and Radical Republicans and Socialists led to the June Days Uprising.  Also on 2 September 1848, the National Constituent Assembly vowed not to dissolve itself until they had written a new constitution and enacted all the organic laws necessary to implement that new constitution. Roche, Frederic Bastiat, A Man Alone, ch. Revolutions of 1848, series of republican revolts against European monarchies, beginning in Sicily and spreading to France, Germany, Italy, and the Austrian Empire. Therefore, it tended to address only the concerns of the liberal bourgeoisie.  Perhaps a third of Paris was on social welfare. The Bourbons tended to support the landed aristocracy while the Orleanist tended to support the banking and finance bourgeoisie. Independence of other European states such as Poland was urged by the Paris radicals.  Louis Napoleon won the presidential election by a wide margin over the current dictator Louis Cavaignac and the petty bourgeoisie socialist Alexandre Ledru-Rollin.  This attempted revolution on the part of the working classes was quickly suppressed by the National Guard. Peasants overwhelmingly supported Napoleon. He re-established universal suffrage, feared by the Republicans at the time who correctly expected the countryside to vote against the Republic, Louis Napoleon took the title Emperor Napoleon III, and the Second Empire began. No need to register, buy now! The poet Alphonse de Lamartine was appointed president of the provisional government.  In 1848, 479 newspapers were founded alongside a 54% decline in the number of businesses in Paris, as most wealth had evacuated the city. At the same time a sort of industrial parliament was established at the Luxembourg Palace, under the presidency of Louis Blanc, with the object of preparing a scheme for the organization of labor. Driven by a varied mixture of classical liberalism , Romanticism , and nationalism , the revolutionary outbreak began in Italy in January of 1848 and spread like wildfire across Central and Eastern Europe.  In them, he urged the French people not to listen to the demagogues and argued that their demands were both incompatible with each other aimed at fooling them and aimed to use their sentiments for the demagogues' own political gain.  The banquet campaign lasted until all political banquets were outlawed by the French government in February 1848. Nationalist tendencies caused France to severely restrict all international contacts with the United Kingdom, including the ban on importing tea, perceived as destructive to the French national spirit. Les autres révolutions en Europe La fin de la révolution Française de 1848 Ce sont Les Poires de Daumier elles reflètent la détérioration de la popularité de Louis-Philippe Ier. Louis Napoléon went on to become the de facto last French monarch. In 1848, the petty bourgeoisie outnumbered the working classes (unskilled laborers in mines, factories and stores, paid to perform manual labor and other work rather than for their expertise) by about two to one. Accordingly, the provisional government, supposedly created to address the concerns of all the classes of French society, had little support among the working classes and petit bourgeoisie.  He wrote a series of articles on them, including "The Reform Movement in France" which was published in La Rèforme on 20 November 1847; "Split in the Camp—the Rèforme and the National—March of Democracy" published in The Northern Star on 4 December 1847; "Reform Banquet at Lille—Speech of LeDru-Rollin" published in The Northern Star on 16 December 1847; "Reform Movement in France—Banquet of Dijon" published in The Northern Star on 18 December 1847; "The Réforme and the National" published in the Deutsche-Brüsseler-Zeitung on 30 December 1847; and "Louis Blanc's Speech at the Dijon Banquet" published in the Deutsche-Brusseler-Zeitung on 30 December 1847. Each class in France saw Louis Napoleon as a return of the "great days" of Napoleon Bonaparte, but had its own vision of such a return. As a result, Louis Philippe, of the Orléanist branch, rose to power, replacing the old Charter by the Charter of 1830, and his rule became known as the July Monarchy. Europe The German revolutions 1848/9. Electoral Mobilisation under the Second Republic in F rance, 1848–1851. Louis Philippe was an expert businessman and, by means of his businesses, he had become one of the richest men in France. This law prohibited the use of labor of those children under eight years of age, and the employment of children less than 13 years old for night-time work.  Such a plan was introduced in the National Assembly but was rejected. As such, Thiers became the chief spokesman of the finance bourgeoisie, and as time went by he was tending to speak for the whole bourgeoisie, including the rising industrial bourgeoisie. The bourgeoisie joined with the working classes to fight for "proper participation" in the government for all sections and classes in society.  Even with this force of 120,000 to 125,000 soldiers, Cavaignac still required two days to complete the suppression of the working-class uprising. Free delivery on qualified orders. It remains the most widespread revolutionary wave in European history.. But after the revolution, the working classes were disillusioned by their small share of that participation, and revolted in the streets. On 15 May 1848, Parisian workmen, feeling their democratic and social republic was slipping away, invaded the Assembly en masse and proclaimed a new Provisional Government. On 26 February 1848, the liberal opposition came together to organize a provisional government, called the Second Republic. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press.  Still Louis Philippe saw himself as the successful embodiment of a "small businessman" (petite bourgeoisie). These revolutions were marked by nationalism and liberalism.  The army believed Napoleon would have a foreign policy of war. Democrats looked to 1848, as a democratic revolution, which in the long run insured liberty, equality, and fraternity. By May 1848 the National Workshops were employing 100,000 workers and paying out daily wages of 70,000 livres. The year 1846 saw a financial crisis and bad harvests, and the following year saw an economic depression. An officer ordered the crowd not to pass, but people in the front of the crowd were being pushed by the rear. In The Revolutions in Europe 1848–1849: From Reform to Reaction, edited by Evans, Robert and von Strandmann, Hartmut Pogge, 27 – 53. For nationalists, 1848, was the springtime of hope when newly emerging nationalities rejected the old multinational empires. When the revolution eventually broke out in Paris, it swept eastwards through Germany and the Habsburg monarchy within a short time only to be stopped at the western boundaries of tsarist Russia. Vers 20 h… See the first-hand account of Percy St. John: F. Bastiat, "A letter to a Group of Supporters", G.C. "Virtue and the material culture of the nineteenth century: the debate over the mass marketplace in France in the aftermath of the 1848 revolution. Marx saw the 1848 Revolution as being directed by the desires of the middle-class.  In the eyes of the Party of Order, these provisions were now entirely unacceptable, especially in the new conservative political environment after the June Days. En 1846 une grave crise agricole touche le pays. Louis Philippe was viewed as generally indifferent to the needs of society, especially to those members of the middle class who were excluded from the political arena. Cells of resistance surfaced, but were put down, and the Second Republic was officially over. The petty bourgeoisie was pauperized and many small merchants became part of the working class. In France, the revolutionary events ended the July Monarchy (1830–1848) and led to the creation of the French Second Republic. After sweeping the elections, Louis Napoleon tried to return France to the old order. According to French economist Frédéric Bastiat, the poor condition of the railway system can largely be attributed to French efforts to promote other systems of transport, such as carriages. The "right" of a citizen to work and indeed the National Workshops themselves had been the idea of Jean Joseph Louis Blanc. Napoleon III won the presidential election of 10 December 1848 with 5,587,759 votes as opposed to 1,474,687 votes for Cavaignac and 370,000 votes for Ledru-Rollin.  This action provoked an immediate reaction from the citizenry, who revolted against the monarchy during the Three Glorious Days of 26–29 July 1830.  Although the National Constituent Assembly had attempted to write a constitution before the June Days, only a "first draft" of that constitution had been written before the repression in June 1848. 10 The history of the revolution of 1848 in France has given rise to many overviews, such as R. Price (ed. He had no desire to rule as a constitutional monarch, taking various steps to strengthen his own authority as monarch and weaken that of the lower house.  As the United Kingdom was the largest economy in the world in the nineteenth century, France deprived itself of its most important economic partner, one that could have supplied France with what it lacked and bought surplus French goods. La seconde, à tonalité humaniste, met en valeur l'aspect fraternel et philanthropique des aspirations : « printemps des peuples … Support for the provisional government was especially weak in the countryside, which was predominantly agricultural and more conservative, and had its own concerns, such as food shortages due to bad harvests. The provisional government set out to establish deeper government control of the economy and guarantee a more equal distribution of resources. 1848 in European History. révolution de 1848 en France -- études diverses. Workers lost their jobs, bread prices rose, and people accused the government of corruption. Its financial condition had deteriorated even further due to slow sales and economic dislocations of the Revolution. The concerns of the bourgeoisie were very different from those of the lower classes. De Palerme à Paris, de Milan à Vienne, de Neuchâtel à Venise, de Berlin à Bucarest, l’Europe est submergée en 1848 par une vague révolutionnaire qui n’épargne que de très rares pays. 1848, at best, was a glimmer … To deal with the unemployment problem, the provisional government established National Workshops. Supported by the Orléanists, he was opposed on his right by the Legitimists (former ultra-royalists) and on his left by the Republicans and Socialists.  He was not able to break the stiff opposition put up by the armed workers on the barricades on 23 June 1848. Cavaignac's forces started out on 23 June 1848 with an army composed of from 20,000 to 30,000 soldiers of the Paris garrison of the French Army. Paris was soon a barricaded city. Karl Marx was referring to this phenomenon when he said "History repeats itself: the first time as a tragedy, the second time as a farce. They were all bitterly disappointed in the short run. Karl Marx saw the "June Days" uprising as strong evidence of class conflict. ) The industrial bourgeoisie felt that Napoleon would suppress further revolutionary activity. Bastiat, who was one of the most famous political writers of the 1840s, had written countless works concerning the economic situation before 1848, and provided a different explanation of why the French people were forced to rise in the revolt. The nation of Poland had been gradually "partitioned" or divided between foreign powers of Prussia, Russia, and Austria in 1773 and 1793. Many of the participants in the revolution were of the so-called petite (petty) bourgeoisie (small business owners). Comme en 1789 et 1830, les révolutions de 1848 sont filles de la crise économique. Neither the French Revolution of 1789, nor the July Revolution of 1830, nor the Paris Commune of 1870, nor the Russian Revolutions of 1905 and 1917 sparked a comparable transcontinental cascade. "The Emergence of the Extreme Left in Lower Languedoc, 1848–1851: Social and Economic Factors in Politics,", Moss, Bernard H. "June 13, 1849: the abortive uprising of French radicalism.  Bastiat believed that the revolution was carried out by a very large group of desperate people, who were able to organize themselves and arm quickly due to both experience from the countless riots and previous revolutions, but at the same time were almost instantly manipulated by a small group of demagogues who assumed command, which is the reason why the protesters' demands were largely incompatible with one another; e.g., a drastic reduction of taxes and greater social benefits, with the latter requiring higher taxes, hence contradicting the first demand. Révolutions -- Europe -- 19e siècle. , The government of the National Constituent Assembly continued to resist the radicals. To pay for the new National Workshops and the other social programmes, the provisional government placed new taxes on land. During and soon after the events of February, Bastiat's pamphlets were reportedly plastered throughout Paris and published in both conservative and socialist newspapers.  Cavaignac began a systematic assault against the revolutionary Parisian citizenry, targeting the blockaded areas of the city. Martin Aceña and Prados de la Escosura, 101–16, here 113.Gomez Mendoza estimates that national income (excluding earnings that reverted to foreign investors) would have been between 6.5 and 12 per cent lower by 1878 without the infrastructural programme launched in the 1850s. The results of the 23 April 1848 election were a disappointment to the radicals in Paris except for the election of one candidate popular among urban workers, François-Vincent Raspail. The new constitution was finished on 23 October 1848 and presidential elections were scheduled for 10 December 1848. bankers, stock exchange magnates, railroad barons, owners of coal mines, iron ore mines, and forests and all landowners associated with them, tended to support him, while the industrial section of the bourgeoisie, which may have owned the land their factories sat on but not much more, were disfavoured by Louis Philippe and actually tended to side with the middle class and laboring class in opposition to Louis Philippe in the Chamber of Deputies. Despite agitation from the left, voters elected a constituent assembly which was primarily moderate and conservative. The conference was held at the Georg Eckert Institute in Braunschweig and was attended by around 50 participants and speakers. Hardcover. La révolution de 1848 en Europe, en France, à Caen, Archives départementales du Calvados, 1998. The revolutions all ultimately ended in failure and repression, and they were followed by widespread disillusionment among liberals. These ordinances abolished freedom of the press, reduced the electorate by 75%, and dissolved the lower house. Accordingly, Cavaignac's forces were reinforced with another 20,000–25,000 soldiers from the mobile guard, some additional 60,000 to 80,000 from the national guard.  ". He believed that the main reasons were primarily the political corruption, along with its very complex system of monopolies, permits, and bureaucracy, which made those who were able to obtain political favors unjustly privileged and able to dictate the market conditions and caused a myriad of businesses to collapse, as well as protectionism which was the basis for the French foreign trade at the time, and which caused businesses along the Atlantic Coast to file for bankruptcy, along with the one owned by Bastiat's family. The Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations, People's Spring, Springtime of the Peoples, or the Year of Revolution, were a series of political upheavals throughout Europe in 1848. GARNIER-PAGES. The working classes had been abandoned by the bourgeois politicians who founded the provisional government. La première rend compte de la soudaineté des événements : c'est l'« explosion », la « vague », la « flambée ». In the months that followed, this government steered a course that became more conservative. Despite the movement’s complete failure, the Revolution of 1848 nevertheless played a profound role in shaping the modern history of Europe. Rarely has an event in European history been so much anticipated and feared, as the revolution of 1848–9. The officer ordered his men to fix bayonets, probably wishing to avoid shooting, but in what is widely regarded as an accident, a soldier discharged his musket and the rest of the soldiers then fired into the crowd.