Despite internal differences, the Council began to organise the public services essential for a city of two million residents. On the 18th of March, 1871 the working people of Paris, with the help of the Garde Nationale, established the Commune de Paris. Believing that their struggle against patriarchy[citation needed] could only be pursued through a global struggle against capitalism, the association demanded gender and wage equality, the right of divorce for women, the right to secular education, and professional education for girls. Their offices were invaded and closed by crowds of the Commune's supporters. On 10 June, when the Commune was finished, Flaubert wrote to Sand:[105]. La Commune de Paris (1871) Où? [87], A contingent of several dozen national guardsmen led by Antoine Clavier, a commissaire and Emile Gois, a colonel of the National Guard, arrived at La Roquette prison and demanded, at gunpoint, the remaining hostages there: ten priests, thirty-five policemen and gendarmes, and two civilians. Delescluze ordered everyone to leave the building, and Brunel's men set it on fire. Genton was given a list of hostages and selected six names, including Georges Darboy, the Archbishop of Paris and three priests. Shop Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/paris-commune-4147849. Lissagaray also claimed that the artillery fire by the French army was responsible for probably half of the fires that consumed the city during the Bloody Week. The siege ended with the surrender of the French army to the Prussians and the signing of an armistice to end the fighting of the Franco-Prussian War. "I lack artillerymen and workers to hold off the catastrophe. On 14 May, Rigault proposed to exchange 70 hostages for the extreme-left leader, and Thiers again refused. The fort's garrison was commanded by Leon Megy, a former mechanic and a militant Blanquist, who had been sentenced to 20 years hard labour for killing a policeman. COMMUNE DE PARIS 1871 958 views. In the years of the Soviet Union, the spaceflight Voskhod 1 carried part of a Communard banner. Raoul Rigaut, the chairman of the Committee of Public Safety, without getting the authorisation of the Commune, executed one group of four prisoners, before he himself was captured and shot by an army patrol. Sous la bannière Commune de Paris 1871, Alexandre Maïsetti et … La Commune de Paris « La Commune de Paris est l´inspiration de presque toutes les révolutions, ayant bouleversé le 20e siècle. Commune de Paris, 1871 Yesterday at 2:56 AM Adieu braderie -60 -70 -80% DERNIERE SEMAINE - 19 rue commin ... es, Paris 03 du mardi au samedi 11h - 19h30 Courage & liberté . In Paris, however, the republican candidates dominated, winning 234,000 votes against 77,000 for the Bonapartists. On 15 March, just before the confrontation between the National Guard and the regular army over the cannons, 1,325 delegates of the federation of organisations created by the National Guard elected a leader, Giuseppe Garibaldi (who was in Italy and respectfully declined the title), and created a Central Committee of 38 members, which made its headquarters in a school on the Rue Basfroi, between Place de la Bastille and La Roquette. The editors wrote, "We are against the National Assembly, but we are not for the Commune. The sound of firing squads, which one still hears in the mournful city, atrociously prolongs the nightmare ... Paris is sick of executions. Commune of Paris, (1871), insurrection of Paris against the French government from March 18 to May 28, 1871. Der Rat der Kommune begann mit sozialen, politischen und wirtschaftlichen Maßnahmen zur Verbesserung der Lebensbedingungen des einfachen Volkes und die Regierung antwortete darauf mit der militärischen Belagerung der Stadt. It also reached a consensus on certain policies that tended towards a progressive, secular, and highly democratic social democracy. No_Favorite. 00:58. On May 21, 1871, the army stormed the city and slaughtered tens of thousands of Parisians, including women and children, in the name of retaking the city for the Third Republic. Later in October, General Louis Jules Trochu launched a series of armed attacks to break the German siege, with heavy losses and no success. Commune De Paris 1871 Mantel Herren auf YOOX. The atmosphere was tense, and in the middle of the afternoon, gunfire broke out between the two sides; each side blamed the other for firing first. [56], The destruction of the Vendôme Column honouring the victories of Napoleon I, topped by a statue of the Emperor, was one of the most prominent civic events during the Commune. Parisians suffered shortages of food, firewood, coal and medicine. "[112] Mikhail Bakunin was a strong supporter of the Commune. A Revision". The Council members (who were not "representatives" but delegates, subject in theory to immediate recall by their electors) were expected to carry out many executive and military functions as well as their legislative ones. "[115] Following the 1871 Paris Commune, the anarchist movement, as was the whole of the workers' movement, was decapitated and deeply affected for years. Only about 40,000 were employed in factories and large enterprises; most were employed in small industries in textiles, furniture and construction. In the first round of the 1869 parliamentary elections held under the French Empire, 4,438,000 had voted for the Bonapartist candidates supporting Napoleon III, while 3,350,000 had voted for the republican opposition. Before General Cissey and the Versailles army could occupy the fort, the National Guard rushed reinforcements there and re-occupied all the positions. The trial of Gustave Cluseret, the former commander, was still going on at the Commune when they received the message from General Dombrowski that the army was inside the city. The insurgents held only the 11th, 12th, 19th and 20th arrondissements, and parts of the 3rd, 5th, and 13th. [39] It declared that Clemenceau was no longer the Mayor of Montmartre, and seized the city hall there, as well as the city halls of the 1st and 2nd arrondissements, which were occupied by more radical national guardsmen. More extreme elements of the National Guard carried out mock religious processions and parodies of religious services. In this war drama blurring the lines between documentary and fiction, the working class and the bourgeoisie of 19th century Paris are interviewed and covered on television, before and during a tragic workers' class revolt. The fire lasted 48 hours and gutted the palace, except for the southernmost part, the Pavillon de Flore. [17], On 28 October, the news arrived in Paris that the 160,000 soldiers of the French army at Metz, which had been surrounded by the Germans since August, had surrendered. Of the 270 condemned to death—175 in their absence—25 were shot, including Ferré and Gustave Genton, who had selected the hostages for execution. "[5], French writers and artists had strong views about the Commune. In February, while the national government had been organising in Bordeaux, a new rival government had been organised in Paris. [29] Earlier that day, dressed in civilian clothes, he had been trying to find out what was going on, when he was recognized by a soldier and arrested, and brought to the building at Rue des Rosiers. Sixty councilors were elected and included workers, businessmen, office workers, journalists, as well as scholars and writers. At the end, he wrote: "No one knows the exact number of victims of the Bloody Week. On the other side, the young Anatole France described the Commune as "A committee of assassins, a band of hooligans [fripouillards], a government of crime and madness. There were rumours that pétroleuses were paid 10 francs per house. [51] Along with Eugène Varlin, Nathalie Lemel created the cooperative restaurant La Marmite, which served free food for indigents, and then fought during the Bloody Week on the barricades.[52]. [48] Joséphine Marchias, a washer woman, picked up a gun during the battles of May 22-23rd and said, "You cowardly crew! [128] Stalin wrote: "In 1917 we thought that we would form a commune, an association of workers, and that we would put an end to bureaucracy...That is a goal that we are still far from reaching. A plaque also marks the wall in Père Lachaise Cemetery where 147 Communards were executed, commonly known as the Communards' Wall. For example, in the 3rd arrondissement, school materials were provided free, three parochial schools were "laicised", and an orphanage was established. [43], Following the model proposed by the more radical members, the new government had no president, no mayor, and no commander in chief. Its editor Auguste Vacquerie was close to Victor Hugo, whose son wrote for the paper. The idea had originally come from the painter Gustave Courbet, who had written to the Government of National Defence on 4 September calling for the demolition of the column. Sie war vom 18. Es wird noch produziert. Film de Peter Watkins "La Commune… The ministers and officials of the Bolshevik government were given the title Commissar, which was borrowed directly from the Commissaires of the Commune. Thiers announced a plan to send the army the next day to take charge of the cannons. He travelled to German-occupied Tours and met with Bismarck on 1 November. The Commune governed Paris for two months, until it was suppressed by the regular French Army during "La semaine sanglante" ("The Bloody Week") beginning on 21 May 1871. "[109] But on 1 June, when the fighting was over, his tone had changed, "The court martials are still meeting and the summary executions continue, less numerous, it's true. Rumours and conspiracy theories abounded. He was highly popular both within the army and in the country. [80], Historian J.P.T. Seeking to disrupt economic power hierarchies, they ended night work in the city's bakeries, awarded pensions to the families of those who were killed while defending the Commune, and abolished the accrual of interest on debts. More public buildings were set afire, including the Palais de Justice, the Prefecture de Police, the theatres of Châtelet and Porte-Saint-Martin, and the Church of Saint-Eustache. MacMahon replied, "the number is exaggerated." Commune, 1871. The men of the Hotel de Ville could not be other than assassins and arsonists. Other candidates who were elected, including about twenty moderate republicans and five radicals, refused to take their seats. The first effort to pull down the column failed, but at 5:30 in the afternoon the column broke from its base and shattered into three pieces. When the Thiers government left Paris in March, they did not have the time or the reliable soldiers to take the money with them. The first was that the Communards "stopped half way ... led astray by dreams of ... establishing a higher [capitalist] justice in the country ... such institutions as the banks, for example, were not taken over". Wenn auch nur für kurze Zeit, war sie ein doch wichtiger Bruch, den die Revolutionäre herbeizuführen wussten, um ihre eigene Ordnung zu errichten. "[6] In a new 1896 edition Lissagaray emphasized, "Twenty thousand men, women and children killed after the fighting in Paris and in the provinces. ("the democratic and social republic!"). Revolutionaries had gone into the streets to oppose their governments during the popular uprisings of July 1830 and June 1848, and on many other occasions. General Vinoy, the commander of the Paris Military District, had ordered any prisoners who were deserters from the Army to be shot. [84], By the end of 24 May, the regular army had cleared most of the Latin Quarter barricades, and held three-fifths of Paris. Cole, Nicki Lisa, Ph.D. (2020, August 27). During the Siege of Paris she untiringly preached resistance to the Prussians. [65] One of these officers was General Jaroslav Dombrowski, a former Imperial Russian Army officer, who was appointed commander of the Commune forces on the right bank of the Seine. The first reaction of many of the National Guard was to find someone to blame, and Dombrowski was the first to be accused. Pourquoi? At 6:00 in the evening, the army used cannon to demolish the gates and the First Regiment of naval infantry stormed into the cemetery. La Commune de Paris constitue une expérience révolutionnaire sur laquelle il existe une multitude de publications, militantes ou non. There were also 115,000 servants and 45,000 concierges. The International had considerable influence even among unaffiliated French workers, particularly in Paris and the large cities. The professions represented in the council were 33 workers; five small businessmen; 19 clerks, accountants and other office staff; twelve journalists; and a selection of workers in the liberal arts. She offered to shoot Thiers, and suggested the destruction of Paris by way of vengeance for its surrender. Seeing the more radical political direction of the new Commune, Tirard and some twenty republicans decided it was wisest to resign from the Commune.